The Sacral Chakra
Unit 6 - Master Your Energy E-course.
The Sacral Chakra.
Living with Joy and in the Flow.
Recording 1: Emotional Flow Meditation
Recording 2: Karma Healing Meditation
Recording 3: I am Magical Child Meditation
We will describe the Sacral chakra following four main maps: the original Vedas, the 5 Elements of the Medicine Wheel, the Inca shamanic tradition and A. Judith’s Age development model.
(For an overview of the models, see Unit 3 ‘The Energy of Chakras’)
Description and Archetypes
With the second chakra we enter the lighter frequency of water and movement. The lotus strongly rooted in the mud emerges in the nourishing waters to move towards the sunlight. In the same way the ascending kundalini energy rises up from the root chakra, in alive and vibrant motion, longing for expression in the world of sensual creation.
The sacral chakra represents our connection to life, where we come in relation with the world of sensations, emotions and perceptions. Therefore, it is about movement and flow, creativity and playfulness, sensuality and pleasure. This energy centre is a place of emotion, intuition and instinct, where we feel our deepest desires and creative needs, and where we enjoy connecting with the world around us.
The sacral chakra is positioned in the lower abdomen between the navel and the genitals. In the Vedas it is called Svadhisthana, meaning ‘the dwelling place of the Self’ but also translated as ‘Sweetness of Life’. A way of linking these two meanings is that this is ‘the place where the Self, as the ultimate Being, experiences the joy of coming into existence’. The sweet home of the Self.
In the Vedas the symbol for this energy centre is a white crescent moon, an image associated to the element of water and evoking the shadowy deep undercurrents of our psyche. We access here our emotional intelligence, our inner well of sensations, perceptions and feelings, which guide us to fullfil our desires and creative endeavors.
Vishnu is the deity residing here as the Sustainer of the Universe, in the life cycle of creation, sustenance and destruction. Like waves are born, develop and die, what is being created with Brahman in the root chakra, is now sustained and nourished by Vishnu, a protecting and stabilizing force for all creation to manifest. Vishnu is married to Lakshmi, goddess of prosperity, love and beauty. Together they sustain life expression in joy, abundance, creativity and pleasure.
Another Hindu myth, evoking the joy of celebrating life, as the main vibration of the 2nd chakra, is the ecstatic union of Parvati and Shiva. It is said that Parvati created the world for Shiva to play. Parvati embodies the Kundalini-Shakti energy of Samsara (the river of life), whilst Shiva represents the infinite, eternal space of Nirvana (consciousness). She is a creature moved by desire into the dance of life, yearning to surrender in love to Shiva, who experiences himself in the mirror of his beloved, in the ultimate realization they are One Love Energy only. Together they realize the sacred intimacy of beingness with sensual experience.
Water, the traditional element of the sacral chakra, is invoked in celtic shamanism by honoring its natural features. Water is the life-giver, nourishing, holding and healing. Great civilizations have developed near important bodies of water, like the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamian or the Ganga in India, where access to water created abundance of crop and thriving communities. Rainfall nourishes the earth, the waters of the living womb nourish new babies, and the water of sacred wells nurtures and heals our Soul.
There are more symbolic qualities connected to water and its physiognomy. The principle of flow, for example, in the image of rivers flowing continuously whilst remaining the same essence in each spot. When we connect to the deep ocean we experience the silent depth of our being. Storms remind us of intensity and passion, whilst lakes bring us a sense of stillness and peace. Sacred wells and waterfalls feel cleansing, healing and rejuvenating.
The quality of flow, however, is a particularly important feature of sacral chakra energy and is correlated to our ability to change and be fluid emotionally.
Life flows in a continuous cycle of death and rebirth, of Eros and Thanatos, of change and renewal, of creation and destruction. We flow in a rhythm between opposites, connection and separation, letting go and holding on, ecstatic passion and quiet stillness, action and relaxation and so on.
A person with a balanced sacral chakra is able to surf all waters of life, owning the full range of her emotional spectrum and creative abilities, and is able to change and flow in every life circumstance.
In Inka shamanism the sacral chakra is a power centre. The spirit of Jaguar governs its energy and is an inspiration to live as a peaceful warrior. Jaguar is alert, perceptive, ready for action and walks the Earth with no fear as it is at the top of the food chain. In the same way the peaceful warrior is highly aware, able to act out of choice rather than reactivity, in charge of her emotional responses. When the sacral chakra energy is in balance we are not driven by fear or pain imprinted in the body, as a result of trauma, and causing us to behave in a compulsive way. We have stepped out of the negative karmic stories running our life, into self-awareness and clear perception and we connect harmoniously with the world around.
The sacral chakra is a power centre in many traditions. In Yoga all the 72000 nadis meet here, 36000 from Pingala Nadi (the right Sun-masculine meridian) and 36000 from Ida nadi (the left Moon-feminine meridian), creating a powerful core. In many traditions (Japanese, Chinese and New Age), this focal point of energy (Hara or Dan Tien), houses the essential life force (Ki, Qi-Ch’i or prana). The sacral chakra is literally a generator of life force, magnetizing and radiating energy in the field around. Here we hold our strong core and, like holding a rudder amidst the currents of the ocean, we ride the raw, powerful kundalini energy.
Similarly, in Huna shamanism this is the space of the Basic Self, the powerhouse of our Psyche, in deep touch with the underworld of our wild emotions and instinctual awareness, and in direct connection to our Higher Self. (See more in Unit 4 – Master your Energy e-course, Power and the Shadow).
In the age development model the child is 1-2 years of age and is enjoying experiencing life with all her senses. She explores the world around her actively and fearlessly, moved by pleasure and curiosity. She is in love with everything and in wonder with all new sensations and perceptions. This is the realm of the joyful, magical, radiant child, who is learning to separate from the mother to connect to the people, and the world around. The child’s mind is not developed yet and she perceives through her senses, feelings and perceptions. When her basic needs of protection, safety and love are met in the root chakra, through sensory stimulation and play, the child learns to trust her own intuition and her ability for independent exploration. The tension here is between attachment and authenticity, where the child moves from the need of bonding with her parents for love, to the desire for exploration, independence and self-expression.
Emotions, Core beliefs and Issues
An open sacral chakra moves us to join Samsara, the river of life. It is undoubtful therefore that any block to experiencing the joy of life lies at its core wounding. When we perceive ourselves as separate or disconnected from the world, from others and from our own instinctual nature, we block the vital flow of energy in this energy centre. We may then become shut down, isolating ourselves from the environment and from our own emotional, creative intelligence. On the other hand, we may compensate the pain of separation by losing ourselves in excessive attachments to material realities, to people, jobs or other addictions, in an attempt to feel more connected. Either we retreat from the world or we feel overidentified. In both cases we freeze the carefree fluidity of being intimate with life and non-attached at the same time.
In the Veda the myths of Lakshmi and Visnu invite us to enjoy the luscious abundance and beauty of life, whilst the union of Parvati and Shiva invites us to experience the ecstasy and sacredness of intimate connection. Whenever we lose touch with the Sweetness of Life, restricted by fearful beliefs in lack vs abundance, struggle vs pleasure, resistance vs flow, the energy in our sacral chakra becomes dysfunctional, either excessive or deficient.
When we move through life in struggle and suffering, often following the dictates of a hard-working, high achieving mindset, we are in an excessive modality, driven by a ‘there is never enough’ or ‘I am never enough’ motivation. We then operate in a ‘fight’ stressful mode, often compelled towards over-doing, competitive behavior, aggressiveness, excessive search for pleasure or distraction and other harmful addictions.
On the other hand, the same lack of trust in life and in our ability to cope, and the same core belief of ‘I am not good enough’, may contract our energy into depression and numbness. We then operate into a flight-freeze mode, incapable of sensual and emotional intimacy, living in low self-value, poverty consciousness, driven by fear, guilt or self-sacrifice rather than by creativity, joy and effortlessness.
The relationship with the Water Element may be unbalanced when we deny its symbolic quality of self-nourishment, as fulfillment of our physical, emotional and creative needs. The mantra of the sacral chakra is ‘Needs are good! Follow your Bliss!’. Feel good with physical movement, good food and sensual touch, as well as cultivate deeply supportive emotional relationships and uplifting endeavors. When our needs are not met, we may become needy towards others or trapped in addictions or we may live in self-denial, numb and isolated. The martyr is a good example of someone sacrificing her personal needs to support others. Lack of acknowledgment and appreciation cause the martyr to delve in self-pity and guilt-inducing behaviors. The martyr needs to move away from a self-sacrificing behavior which only reflects her core belief that life is suffering, into creating more life-affirming choices for herself.
The sacral chakra energy may be blocked when we deny the qualities of flow and change in our life. The ever-flowing river of life is never the same in one spot, continuously flowing and changing. In the same way we need to embrace change, moving from fixed identities and beliefs into new possibilities, letting go of what needs dying and doesn’t serve us anymore and taking the risk of expanding out of our comfort zone. The chakra becomes deficient when we create rigid fearful structures and set excessive boundaries resisting any form of change. The chakra becomes excessive instead, for lack of stability and poor boundaries (the river doesn’t have strong banks) and we surf through life without a firm hand of the rudder, taken over by chaotic external circumstances.
Typically the sacral chakra is associated with the realm of emotions. The symbol of the moon and the element of water symbolize emotional depth and emotional fluidity. Issues arise when we are trapped in the negative spectrum of the emotional range. Due to trauma, stress and other wounding we may live in depression, anxiety, uncontrollable mood swings, chronic adrenal exhaustion (fight- flight-freeze) and more. These negative states of emotional numbness or overwhelm may lead to pattern of behaviors such as co-dependency, addictions, rigid dogmatic conducts, aggressiveness and more, all meant as a way to cope with the inability to allow and transmute emotions.
Furthermore, emotions are shamed in our culture and the sign of a weak mind. The perceptions of empaths are judged as subjective and not measurable. Expressing emotions is condemned as lack of control. Emotional guidance is a scientific fact. All the area of the womb is wired with neurological connections. It is like a second brain that continuously receives and sends information. Repressing emotions shuts off our intuition and life force and causes them to get lodged in the body. Only when we allow emotions fully, with awareness and no judgment, we are able to transform them and move into positive polarities of joy, love, pleasure, play and effortlessness.
Power imbalances in the chakra manifest when its capacity to be a radiant generator of life force is limited. We have analyzed many of these limitations and here I specifically refer to the power over our emotional states. When we lack mastery over our emotions the centre does not hold.
We are then unable to allow all our emotional range, whilst remaining still, quiet and aware. We cannot direct our power form a state of neutrality and according to our choices.
Emotions are the reflections of our Soul, they are the expression of our beliefs, thoughts and of all the karmic stories that live in our psyche. When working with wounding at this level we are facing deep emotional patterns over which we have neither awareness nor control. These subconscious energies are imprinted in our body and drive us through life in reactivity, attracting more traumas and negative events. Karma, as the sum of our wounding and all related narratives, is an inner job. We cannot blame the external world for our powerlessness. We need to take responsibility for transmuting these negative emotional patterns and restore our divine original blueprint of calm presence. Only going back to our still, aware centre of presence, can we create a new karmic current in harmony with our Soul higher values. We then become like the Inka luminous warriors, who control and harness their emotions, act in integrity and leave no negative traces on the earth.
The inner Magical Child, whose essence exists prior to any experience, is divine and incorruptible, and retreats in the shadow of our psyche if there is wounding in early childhood.
At the age of 1-2 the child is separating from mother to discover independence, through her senses and feelings. It is such a pleasure to witness a playful toddler getting excited at almost anything! However, it is a delicate transition, and the child is easily wounded. Wounding may come from too much control, emotional enmeshment, abuse, not enough sensory stimulation, neglect, feelings not being validated or repressed, lack of touch and love, feeling unsafe, and more. Books have been filled with psychological issues at this stage of development. From an energy perspective however, what is important is that the outcome of any form of physical and emotional abuse is Soul loss or the loss of connection with the selfless magical child and her wonderful creative talents. The child has retreated in the depth of the subconscious and is not coming out to play. Instead, what is being formed is her fear body and pain body, as a conglomerate of negative emotions, wounding and conditioning, which will play havoc later on in life. Our magical child is creative, playful and in wonder with all creation, and knows herself by connecting to others and the world.
Core beliefs in the sacral chakra:
Connection to Life and the joy of living:
Life is a struggle and I need to work hard
The world is unsafe, overwhelming and I cannot cope.
Life is unbearable and I don’t want to be here (death wish)
Life is suffering and I don’t deserve joy or pleasure
Sexuality and sensuality: any leading to addiction or repression
Abundance: any related to greed and material attachments or poverty consciousness
Personal needs not important, self-sacrificing
Change: rigid identities and attachments or unboundaried and unstable behaviours
Creativity, exploration and play: any beliefs limiting and blocking these
I am too sensitive
I am overwhelmed by my emotions
Other people’s emotions overwhelm me
I feel invaded by the energies of people and environments
I can’t contain my emotions
I am scared by my emotional intensity
I can’t feel my emotions
I must hide my feelings
I can’t express my emotions
Emotions need to be controlled and repressed
I don’t trust my emotional guidance
Imbalances in the body
There are specific correlations between glands, organs and systems with every chakra, mainly depending on the position of the chakra in the body.
Typically, the second chakra relates to the entire sacral area and we may find imbalances in the reproductive system (uterus, prostate, genitals, ovaries and testes), urinary system (bladder, kidneys, urinary tract), small and large intestines (and microbiome), hip joints and lower back, other muscles or joints when inflexible, peripheral nervous system and immune system.
Imbalances may manifest in other parts of the body, linking to the symbolic qualities of the chakra. For example, a continuous state of stress, as opposed to joy, effortlessness and flow may cause very diverse symptoms, like adrenals exhaustion, infections, eating disorders, or more. Mental health disorders may manifest, such as depression, anxiety, ADHD, bipolarity and more.
The territory is vast to cover, and we know that energy medicine addresses the psycho-spiritual causes of diseases more than the symptoms. These root causes depend on the specific Soul journey of the individual. When a shaman was asked “How do you cure cancer?” He replied “Bring me the person”.
Healing and balancing the chakra
Healing the sacral chakra is about restoring connection to life and our natural state of joy and calm presence.
Are we open to connect with others and the world? Do we nurture our deep needs and desires? How do we harness our vitality and joy? Are we in the flow or are we resisting what life presents us? Do we embrace change with an attitude of curiosity, play and exploration?
In order to feel joy, we need to heal our pain body, burdened by negative conditioning and wounding. Living in stress and in reactive wounded mode, all contracts the energy in the chakra, and disconnects us from our instinctual intelligence and emotional compass.
In order to flow, we need to balance opposite forces, for example the need for intimacy and the need for freedom, or the desire for involvement with life and our state of detachment.
The energy in the chakra is naturally soft, expansive, surrendering. However, we also need to know how to contain it when it becomes excessive.
In general healing the sacred chakra is about restoring our natural state of relaxation, whilst being in friendly joyful connection with the world around us.
I suggest four ways to work with the chakra.
Breath is of fundamental importance, as it is the link between body, emotions and Soul. Awareness of breath allows us to slow down, calm our mind and emotions and be still enough to listen to our enhanced perception and to the voice of our I Am presence.
Connecting to the element of water, in its qualities of stillness, flow and nourishment helps us to balance the life force in our energy system. With 70% of water in our body and the same percentage covering the earth surface, this is a very important element for our human design.
With karma work we will explore those repetitive patterns in the way for us to stay connected to our still, peaceful centre of presence. By releasing and transforming these deep emotional charges we liberate energy towards our goals and desires.
Eventually we will reclaim the essence of our magical child, an archetype of curiosity, playfulness, wonder and untainted joy for life. The magical child represents that state of pure connection to Source, sometimes lost whilst growing up because of wounding, but always present and accessible.
All meditations are designed so that you can re-use them many times, depending on the area of interest at the moment, like relationships, creative projects, money and abundance, intimacy and sexuality, physical or emotional wellness.
Emotional Flow Meditation
In this meditation you are going to connect to the element of water to entrain its qualities of flow and regeneration. You will create a state of openness and fluidity, of lighter emotional vibration.
Peace, joy, sensuality, playfulness are all naturally available to us when we stay in awareness, allowing all our emotions and transforming them at will. In a high state of emotional vibration, life happens effortlessly and harmoniously as we stay still in dynamism.
Click here for the Emotional Flow Meditation
Karma Healing Meditation
In this meditation you are going to heal and transform a karmic pattern that is holding you back in a chosen area of your life right now, where you are experiences difficulties. We are going to clear a core negative emotional pattern and restoring your essential state of happiness, peace and harmony.
Karma is a software we can transform through awareness and by releasing its emotional charge. By accepting our past, forgiving ourselves and embracing all lessons and gifts, we liberate immense power to manifest our true dreams and desires.
Click here for the Karma Healing Meditation
I Am Magical Child Meditation
In the aware space of your True Self you will connect with the joyful energy of your Magical Child. The Divine Child is eternal, ever present and unchanging in its essence. This playful and alive state of being is always accessible to us, inspiring our creativity and wonder for all existence. The radiance of your Magical child will heal any past wounding and guide you into expressing yourself authentically. We will create an inner sanctuary where your child feels at all time safe, protected and loved unconditionally.
Click here for the I am Magical Child Meditation
Tools and practices
Think about emotions as pure energy forms which transform when observed. Allow your emotions, breathe through them, soften them. Emotions keep moving, they come and go, do not hold on to them, do not do anything, only observe them and let them go.
A good method is writing, letting everything flow out on paper with no restraint, no judgement. You will notice that slowly these negative emotions will shift and transform into pearls of joy and calm.
Practice neutrality and detachment from any emotional turmoil in your daily life. As E. Tolle says create ‘space consciousness’, a silence around your emotions. Emotions live inside you, and you are the vast field of awareness. Emotions come and go, do not hold onto them, they are not who you are.
What gives you joy
Emotional guidance is about tuning in and knowing what feels good and what doesn’t. You may want to write as many sentences as you can with the two following starting phrases:
1- I lose my joy when…..
2- I feel joy when….
Which thoughts create positive emotions and which ones lower your vibration.
Which activities or external circumstances give you joy and pleasure and which don’t.
Practice your emotional compass
Practice your inner YES and NO at an instinctual level. Ask yourself: Am I feeling expanded or contracted when I say this YES or this NO? Notice what happens in your feelings and in your body.
Keep your mind out of the way. Tune into the body and feelings, what expands and contracts your energy? Maybe your mind says YES but your body is instead tensed, stressed. Maybe your mind says YES but you feelings are negative.
Our truth comes from a still quiet space and is always kind. If it is charged with feelings we need to understand why, in order to be sure that it does not come from our wounding.
Flow and change
A way we interrupt flow is through resistance. When we are in opposition to what is present in the now, we are in stress response. We are either fighting or withdrawing and in both situations our body and mind are underperforming.
Practice acceptance as a way to yield to life. What we resist persists as we are giving power to it with our attention. Acceptance and awareness allow us to keep a calm inner state of being. In this state of mind, in this neutral detachment, we can change reality when it is possible or accept the situation when it is not under our control.
Flow and change go together because life is continuously moving. Adaptability and flexibility to change can be practiced. We are creature of habits and we love our comfort zone. Practice change for the sake of change, starting with small things in your everyday life. Try a new look or haircut, a new itinerary to work, a new trail in nature, a new music band, a new inspirational speaker and more. Be curious if you can do things differently every day.
Breath work is of the uttermost importance in connecting with the energy of the sacral chakra.
By focusing on the breath the mind calms down and the body relaxes and we entrain the slow rhythm of flow. Conscious breathing allows us to soften and to be more open to what we truly feel and perceive. Try the following two simple exercises.
Take a deep breath and release on the outbreath. Then allow the breath to become normal, maintaining the observation of each inbreath and out breath. Consciously slow down the breath, and consciously lengthen the outbreath. Each breath becomes shallower and almost imperceptible. You may want to focus on where you feel the breath in the body, maybe in your belly, in your chest or in your nostrils.
Observe the breath until it’s just a flutter, slow and shallow, almost non-existent. Allow the natural flow and do not block any longer inbreaths or outbreaths that may arise. Just keep the awareness, be the observer. If thoughts, emotions or physical tension arise, simply go back to the breath.
Observe how the breath becomes barely noticeable and be in the energy of silence, of presence in each moment. You can do this in meditation, when taking a bath and during mindful everyday activities.
Hara (belly) breathing
The objective of this technique is to entrain the energy of the hara (in the lower belly) with your heart and create a circuit of calmness. The hara is your centre of power, of emotional stability, of core strength. The heart is the centre of your being, where you are one with source and your Soul
Start by putting a hand on your heart and a hand on your lower belly.
At first breathe in and out focusing on the heart. Do it for a while for a while. Focus on slow breathing in the heart. Imagine your heart as a shining sun radiating outwards.
Then breathe in and out from your hara, focus on slow breathing. Imagine ripples of energy like water expanding outwards.
Notice how a current of energy is forming between the hara and the heart. It happens spontaneously, the two centres will start vibrating in resonance together, enhancing each other energy.
Cultivate what gives you pleasure
What moves you, what awakens your desire? Which body movement do you like? Maybe dance, yoga, biking, running, walking and more. And what relaxes you? A massage, a sauna? Movement and relaxation energize this chakra, activating endorphins and other joy hormones.
What else stirs up your senses? Explore colors, shapes, textures in art, home decoration or clothing. Which tastes and flavors do you like in food? Which music or sounds in nature soothe you and give you joy? Which smells and which type of touch do you like?
Play and creativity
Honor the magical child in you. Let her try new things, even small ones like new recipes, new types of books, or bigger adventures like exploring a new country, a parallel career path or a new course of studies. Honor the magical child in others. Intend to connect, open to make new friends, to play and work creatively with like-minded people.
Play and create with no goal in mind. Which creative activities do you like? Maybe singing or painting or writing. Embrace spontaneous creativity as opposed to set techniques.
Connect to the element of water in nature
Go in nature and connect to different bodies of water. Embody the spirit of lakes, wells, waterfalls, streams, rivers, or the ocean. Listen to the wisdom of water.
Drink more water, pure water. Be grateful each time you drink.
Take long meditative baths or regenerate with every shower you take, swim in the wild or indoors. Imagine connecting with water creatures, both real ones as dolphins or whales, or mythical ones like undines and mermaids.
By focusing on positive affirmations, we help our subconscious to entrain the energies we want to magnetize in our life. Please find a few suggestions and create your own ones.
I trust life, I choose life, I open to joy, I open to abundance, I am connected with others, I am in intimacy with all life, I am one with life, I open to pleasure and sensuality, I welcome playfulness, I allow all my emotions, I love intense emotions, I am pulsing with passion, I open to my deep desires, I trust my intuition, I trust my emotional guidance, I deal with difficult emotions, I know how to rebalance my emotions, I honor my sexual and emotional needs, I honor my creative drives, I embrace change, I accept reality as it is, I flow with life, my life is a harmonious dance, I resist nothing, I open and surrender to the flow of life.
Walking meditation. This technique was taught by the great Buddhist master Thich Nah Han. It is about walking very slowly and coordinating your breath with your feet.
Breathe in and move the left foot.
Breathe out and move the right feel.
At each step repeat your affirmations.
I open to Abundance (inhale, move the left foot - receive)
I am Abundance (exhale, move the right foot – become)
Name/meaning: Svadhisthana, the Sweetness of Life or the Home of the Self
Position in the body: lower abdomen, between the navel and the genitals
Energy Body: Emotional body
Veda: Vishnu and Lakshmi, sustaining life
Induism: Parvati-Shiva in ecstatic union
Inka shamanism: Jaguar, the peaceful warrior
Chinese-Japanese-Yoga: Generator of life force, ki, qi (ch’i), prana
Shamanism: Spirit of water, Basic Self, Magical child
Developmental model: Child, 1-2 year old
Core emotions, beliefs, issues
Issues: vitality, self-nurturance, creativity, abundance, intimacy, connection to others, emotional balance, flexibility to change, adaptability
Core negative emotions: suffering, numbness, guilt, fear, panic, anger, self-loathing, the pain-body.
Core positive emotions: joy, fulfillment, flow, stillness, flexibility, acceptance, connection to others, the joy-body.
Excessive: energy needs to be contained, overly sensitive and emotional, mood swings, hyperactivity, tantrums, addictions, poor boundaries, emotional neediness, obsessive attachments, instability, greedy, fight response.
Deficient: energy needs to open, emotional numbness, isolation and fear of connection, lack of desire, frigidity, impotency, rigid boundaries, fear of change, depression, withdrawn, poverty consciousness, flight-freeze response.
3rd dimensional colour: orange
5th dimensional colour: soft pink
Relationship other chakras: Heart centre to balance its energy, Third eye to connect to higher intuition
Body correlation: gonads, reproductive system, urinary system, hips and lower back, muscles and joints, intestines and microbiome, immune system, peripheral nervous system, emotional brain (limbic system).